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Indications for bibliographic citations

La bibliography is the list of all the sources cited, consulted and generally used in the research and drafting phases of the thesis work. Drawing up a good list at the end of the work gives the thesis professionalism and prestige, therefore it is important to respect two main rules: the list must be drawn up in alphabetical order and, once one has been chosen citational style, must be maintained throughout the work. Depending on the individual case, it is possible to report the consulted pages of the sources in the footnotes during the work, or directly in the final list: ask your supervisor for advice and establish with him the most appropriate strategy for your research .

We talked about cited sources, but what is meant by quote? When drafting a written text, especially if designed to prove or disprove a thesis, the reasoning illustrated acquire greater validity when they are supported by reliable and, if possible, authoritative sources in the relevant field. When you cite a source, you allow the reader to recover the original source on which the thesis statements are based, allowing them to be framed in the context of the scientific community to which they belong. Any source can be cited, from classic books to magazines to audiovisual documents. Making citations of any kind explicit is very important, both to give credit to the authors and to demonstrate that you have not committed plagiarism.

After reporting the quote in the text, it is therefore necessary to indicate the author and the source from which it comes, but there is not just one way to do this. There are so many citation styles different, depending mainly on the discipline relevant to the thesis, but also on the chosen topic and the preferences of the supervisors; some universities report the citation style to be used among the editorial rules. The most common and used citation styles are listed below:

NomenclatureCitation systemDisciplinary areaExamples
APA STYLE• Surname of author(s), date in the body of the text
• Full surname and dotted name of author(s), date, title, publishing house in bibliography
• Full surname and dotted name of author(s), date, article title. Periodical title, publication number, pages in the bibliography for the journals
Social sciences and psychology• Alessi (2022) underlines that «all young designers want to work with him to learn»
• Alessi, E. (2022), Stories (that never go out of fashion)., Rizzoli
• Miller, S. (2023), Cities with no limits. Monocle, 165, 45-46
CHICAGO• Surname of author(s), Title, pages in note
• Surname of author(s), “Article title”, pages in notes for periodicals
• Author(s) in full, Title, city of publication: publishing house, date in bibliography
• Author(s) in full, “Article title”.Periodical title, publication number (date): pages for periodicals in the bibliography
Humanistics• 1. Bruni, mirabilia, 81
• 2. Scruggs, “On a new urban politics,” 77
• Bruni Renato, mirabilia, Turin: Codice Edizioni, 2018
• Scruggs Gregory, “On a new urban politics”. Monocle, 165 (2023): 77
VANCOUVERThe source is not mentioned in the text, but only in the final bibliography, in which they will be numbered progressively in the order of citation in the text (which will simply report the number)
• Full surname and dotted name of author(s). Title. City of publication: Publishing house; date.
• Full surname and dotted name of author(s). Article title. Periodical title. Article date [if online, date of consultation]; publication volume(number): pages. DOI if online, for periodicals
Medical sciences• Williamson B., Guffey E., eds. Making disability modern. London: Bloomsbury Publishing; 2020
• Voskamp PWM, Dekker FW, Rookmaaker MB, Verhaar MC, Bos WJW, van Diepen M., Ocak G. Vitamin K antagonist use and renal function in pre-dialysis patients. Clinical Epidemiology. May 2018[last visit: 05/09/2023]; 10:623-630. Available here.
IEEE• A progressive reference number is inserted in the text in square brackets, which refers to the final bibliography
• [n] Dotted name and full surname of author(s), Title, city of publication: publishing house, year in bibliography
• [n] Dotted name and full surname of author(s), "Article title", periodical title, volume, number, pages, publication date in the case of periodicals in the bibliography
Computer science, Natural sciences• To generate content dynamically, placeholders contained in template files are used [1]
• [1] Q. Zervaas, Develop web 2.0 applications with PHP, Lavis (TN): Apogeo, 2008
• IG Galàn, “Unlearning Ableism: Design Knowledge, Contested Models, and the Experience of Disability in 1970s Berkeley”, Journal of Design History, vol.36, n.1, 73-92, 2023

A quote can be direct, indirect or paraphrased: in the first case, the words of the source are reported verbatim, copying or transcribing them in the case of audio and video, separating them from the body of the text written by you and using low quotation marks (little tip: if you want to write the low quotation marks using the keyboard, just activate the NUM LOCK on the numeric keypad and use the key combinations ALT+0171 and ALT+0187); paraphrased quotes are precisely paraphrases or re-elaborations of the concepts expressed in the source, they may or may not be separated from the text and it is good practice to indicate the author; indirect instead means the citation of an author who is in turn cited in the source you are consulting: if you are using as a source, for example, an essay, which in turn cites other works and you want to use that phrase or that period, it is It is necessary to specify that it is the author of the essay who reports it in the first place. In the case of a direct quotation, it may happen that you want to omit some lines or sentences from a particularly large text: just insert the wording "[...]" between the parts of the text you have selected for transcription, and the reader will know that, by consulting the source will also find the text you omitted. In both cases, depending on the agreements made with your supervisor, you could immediately insert footnotes after the citation which, depending on the citational style chosen, report the author, title, year of publication and/or pages of the work.

Naturally, it is possible to insert the 4 points in a different order, perhaps moving the last one to the third position so as to provide the user with an explanation on the topic by narrowing the field from time to time (bibliography in general > cite in the text > indicate author and work>how to do it).